With the advantages of policy support, low breeding interest, and broad market prospects, the country will develop beef cattle breeding. A good way for farmers and herdsmen to make a fortune. The author combines the experience of developing small and medium scale beef cattle breeding farms in Jining City and Jiaxiang County of our province to talk about the construction requirements of beef cattle farms and related feeding techniques. 1. Site selection and layout of cattle farms Beef cattle farms, regardless of their size, should be sited on an open space or a hillside 2 kilometers away from the residential area of â€‹â€‹the dwellings (villages), requiring high elevation, ventilation, and convenient transportation. , Good water quality, adequate water supply, and forage base nearby. The area of â€‹â€‹the site depends on the size of the breeding scale. Generally, 100 cattle breeding sites require 5 to 10 mu. If considering the long-term development, the site area should be slightly larger. The layout of the cattle farm should be scientific and reasonable, and the cattle management area, living area, production area, and waste disposal area should be separated. The cattle farm production area is located in the downwind or sidewind direction of the main wind direction of the management area, and the isolation cowshed, sewage and excrement treatment facilities and the dead cattle processing area are set in the downwind or sidewind direction of the main wind direction of the production area. The roads in the stadium must be hardened, and the bare ground should be greened. The clean road and the sewage road should be separated and not intersected with each other, and should be timely cleaned and disinfected. Second, the barn construction barn construction should be based on local climate change, geographical location and other factors to determine, generally due to simple, local materials, economic and practical, but to meet veterinary health requirements. Conditions allow construction of durable steel barn, color tile roof barn. It is better to walk north or southeast or southeast, and the internal structure is generally double-row type, with a walkway in the middle and cow beds on both sides. The cowshed requires a certain number and size of windows to ensure adequate sunlight and air circulation. The perimeter wall can also be built into a half-wall type. The upper empty wall is replaced by movable bamboo curtains. It is put down in winter and opened in summer. The roof should have a certain thickness in order to facilitate thermal insulation. The facilities in the house should be set reasonably to facilitate the growth of beef cattle. The parameters of the basic structure of the cowshed are as follows: 1 The height of the cowshed door is 2.1 to 2.2 meters and the width is 2 to 2.5 meters. It is a double open type. The window is 1.5 meters high and 1.5 meters wide. The window sill is suitable for 1.2 meters above the ground. 2 The double slope type barn ridges are 4 to 5 meters high and the front and rear barrage heights are 3 to 3.5 meters. 3 cattle bed length 1.6 to 1.8 meters, width 1 to 1.2 meters, a slope of 1.5%, aisle width of 1.5 to 2 meters. 4 Feeding tanks are most suitable for fixed cement tanks. The width is 0.6 to 0.8 meters, and the bottom width is 0.35 to 0.4 meters. It is arc-shaped. The inner edge of the groove is high (on the side of the cow bed) 0.35 meters, and the outer edge is high (on the side of the walkway) 0.6 to 0.8 meters. 5 manure urine ditch is 0.25-0.3 meters wide and 0.15-0.3 meters deep. It is advisable to push the normal width of conventional iron shovels with an inclination of 1:50 to 1:100. Third, the introduction of yaks to the non-epidemic area to introduce calves, and pay attention to the type, size and appearance of cattle. Under normal circumstances, it is good to buy 3 to 5 generations of cross between Simmental, Charolais, Angus or Limousin and local yellow cows, weighing 120 to 170 kilograms. The appearance should be healthy and lively. The nose is moist, the back hair is neat and shiny, the body and chest are long, the back is wide, the neck is thick, and the limbs are thick. IV. Feeding and management Yaks will have stress reactions due to changes in long-distance transportation and the environment. Attention must be paid to their changes. Within one week, give enough water, feed less, feed 78%, and if there is diarrhea, cold, fever and other symptoms should be symptomatic treatment. Keep warm in the winter and prevent heat stroke in the summer. After the yaks are adapted to the environment, they are bred and managed according to the conventional methods. 1. Maintain the best temperature and humidity in the house. The suitable temperature and humidity in the house is very important for the growth and development of beef cattle. The calf's stage temperature is maintained at 15 to 30Â°C, and the breeding cows and adult cattle are at 5 to 30Â°C. The enclosed cowshed's relative humidity is 60% to 70%. It is advisable that the maximum should not exceed 75%. Summer temperatures are too high, not only affect the beef cattle feed intake and weight gain, but also may lead to heat stroke and even death of cattle, so you must take measures to reduce temperature, such as frequent spraying of cold water to the ground, take a shelter outside the ring, window ventilation, drinking water enough . Low temperature in winter should be taken to insulation measures, dampness in the house should reduce the amount of water in the house, timely removal of cow dung and urine, to ensure good ventilation. 2. Do a good job of health and epidemic prevention. The venue should be regularly sterilized to keep the pens and utensils clean. The feeding trough is disinfected once a week with 10% alkaline water, and other utensils are disinfected with 0.3% sura every 15 days or so. Bovine body brush every day to try 1 or 2 times. In order to prevent the occurrence of infectious diseases, the calf will be injected with vaccines such as cattle failure, No. 5 disease, and rabies vaccine according to immunization procedures after entering the bar. 3. Do a good job of processing and storage of forage. Before the wheat straw is fed, it should be shortened and aminated or micro-preserved. The corn stalk should be fed with silage, and the hay and rice straw should be stored in the shed or stacked in a timely manner after drying to prevent rain and sunlight. Before the forage is fed, dust, iron wire (nail), gravel, and other debris should be removed. 4. Pay attention to feeding and drinking. Feed consumption: 2.5 to 4 kg of coarse material per head per day for calves (feeding a small amount of distiller's grains and weeds), 1.5 to 2.5 kg of concentrate (60% corn flour, 30% wheat bran, 10% dried cake), fattening During the period, each head needs 4-6 kg (grass and straw) per head, 2.5-4 kg of fine material, and 6-7.5 kg of forage material and 4-5 kg â€‹â€‹of fine material per head per day. Feeding methods: Usually two times a day, sooner or later, every 12 hours, so that the cattle have adequate rumination and rest time. The feeding sequence is generally coarse, fine, dry, and wet before feeding. When the grass and spices are mixed in winter and dry in summer, they should not be fed with forage and spoilage. Drink 2 to 3 times a day, and increase it to 3 to 4 times in the summer. Fifth, hanging shelf fattening technology There are many kinds of fattening methods of beef cattle. Hanging shelf fattening is a commonly used fattening method. After the weaning, the yak is fed with low nutrition and is allowed to grow into a skeleton. When the weight reaches 250 kg or more. When the intensity of fattening, increase fat deposition, to improve the meat, until the weight of 450 to 600 kg slaughter. This fattening method generally takes 90 to 100 days and can be divided into 3 stages: 1 Pre-fattening. Generally about 20 days, after the calf into the bar to carry out deworming, disinfection and castration, gavage stomachic drugs 2 to 3 times or add artificial salt 50 to 100 grams, start fattening within 2 to 3 days, should drink more water , add ground grass, feed less concentrate, let it adapt to fattening. With the increase of fattening time, the amount of roughage gradually decreased, and the amount of concentrated feed decreased gradually. 2 fattening mid-term. Generally 45 to 50 days, this period of science with diet, concentrate material from less to more, feed 1.5 to 2 kg of fine material per 100 kg of body weight, try to meet the nutritional needs of weight gain. Try to make the cattle eat more and less exercise in order to facilitate the growth. 3 late fattening. Generally 20 to 30 days, this period cows do not like to eat grass, do not like sports, but the fastest daily gains, should brush the body of cattle, properly increase the amount of feed and salt to feed amount. If the appetite is poor, the amount of concentrate should be appropriately reduced. The ration of beef cattle during the fattening phase must not only meet its nutritional requirements as far as possible, but also be scientifically formulated. Due to different feed ingredients in different regions, the following two dietary formulas are introduced: Feeds of 7 to 8 kilograms a day, including mixed concentrates (corn 60%, wheat straw 20%, dried cakes 18%, salt 2%) 2.5 ~ 3.5 kg, mixed with 4.5 kg of natural hay. On the 2nd feed 8 to 10 kg of feed, including corn 25%, cottonseed meal 13%, silage corn stover 37%, dry corn stover 3%, distiller's grains 21.5%, soda powder 0.3%, salt 0.2%.
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