Seed field selection and soil cultivation
1. The selection of planting rows and nursery plots and original planted nursery plots are not allowed for the cultivation of flower kidney beans in the previous two years; the improved varieties and improved varieties are not allowed to be planted in the previous year.
The requirements of soil conditions in seed fields are not very strict. Any soil with good irrigation and drainage, fertile soil, and thick soil layer can be used as a seed field. Generally, soil layers >30cm, organic matter>10g/kg, and alkaline nitrogen>40mg/kg are generally required. Kg, available phosphorus> 10 mg/kg, available potassium> 160 mg/kg, pH 7.5 ~ 8.0, light sandy loam or sandy loam.
2. We must promote autumn fall and full-layer fertilization on the ground. Under the premise of ensuring public opinion (especially the spring bourse), apply organic fertilizer and apply 9 to 11 kg of urea, 10 kg of diammonium phosphate and 5 kg of potassium sulfate per 667 m2 before turning the soil. Then immediately ploughed, the quality requirements for turning over the floor were not heavy, consistent in depth, tightly closed, and no furrows.
3. Soil preparation and soil treatment. Autumn is the beginning of a new year in the fall. When the machinery is able to land, or after the spring in the spring. Soil preparation shall be carried out in time. Before planting, the soil preparation can be combined with soil sealing. Spraying 350-400 times of 48% trifluralin EC solution of 30-40 kg per 667m2, the site preparation quality can reach Qi, Ping, Loose, Shred, Net, and Raft requirements. .
1. Single plant selection From the same growing field, select no less than 1000 plants with typical traits and carry out single-plant threshing, grain-by-grain selection, and bagging by plantlet. Plants with the same height, stem diameter, growth habit, plant shape, hairiness, hair color and hair angle; leaflet shape, leaflet shape, and leaf size; plant shape, capsule cross-section shape, and fruit shade consistency Plants; grain shape, size and color of the umbilicus and full, well-developed kernels.
2. The line was planted with single plant selection and single bagging seeds in the previous year. The seeds were planted in rows of 3m line length, 50cm line spacing, and 12-15cm spacing, and each bag line was planted. In the seedling and flowering stages, individual plants with different stem color, leaf shape, leaf shade, and flower color were excluded. When the number of inconsistent plants exceeds 10%, the entire row is rejected and harvested. Seed mixing threshing is used as a primary seeding species.
3. The original plant nursery planted the seeds harvested in the previous year in a row with a spacing of 45cm and a plant spacing of 12-15cm; in the seedling and flowering stages, the individual plants with stem color, leaf shape, leaf color depth, and flower color inconsistent at the seedling stage were excluded. Single harvest and single off when harvesting, and the product received is the original species. The original species of flower kidney beans should not be lower than the national soybean seed standard, ie the purity should not be lower than 99.9%, the clarity should not be lower than 98%, the germination rate should not be lower than 85%, and the moisture content should not be higher than 12%.
Good seed (production species) production
1. Fertilizer seed dressing with 0.2% to 0.6% of the original seed weight of ammonium molybdate seed dressing, first dissolved with hot water ammonium molybdate, into the sprayer, the water consumption is 2% to 3% of the seed weight %, spraying seed while dressing, mix and dry after drying, and then spray mixing seed weight of 0.1% to 0.15% of 50% phoxim EC, spray mixing method above. Mix with phoxim and avoid darkness. Mix and boring after 4 to 6 hours. Spread out and dry.
2. Sowing When the temperature of 5 to 10 cm is stable at 10Â°C, sowing can be performed. Take 45cm and other row spacing sowing, sowing depth of 5 ~ 7cm, in order to facilitate mechanical cultivator, grass, loosing soil, is conducive to the cultivation of strong seedlings. Air-suction seeding, or fertilizer placement deeper than the seed 5 ~ 7cm, you can re-planting fertilizer, every 667m2 can be with DAP 10kg, urea 5kg (with heavy seed fertilizer, should be reduced to the base fertilizer ); conventional sowing, seed fertilizer urea <2kg, diammonium phosphate 3 ~ 5kg. Seeds ranged from 17,000 to 19,000 seeds per 667 square meters and were sown on a 45-cm line with 11 to 13 seeds per square meter. Sowing amount calculation: 667m2 sowing amount (kg) = plan 667m2 seed number 10 hundred hundred grain weight (g) sowing quality requirements sowing straight, not heavy, consistent in depth, under the seed uniform, tight soil, repression indeed.
3. In the field of early management of fertility management, seedlings should be marked and replanted in a timely manner. After the flower kidney bean is in line, if the seedlings are more than 20cm short, use the germinated seeds to promptly recharge the seeds. Generally no later than the first true leaf when the cultivator started, and the Dingmiao, according to the density of planting seedlings, between the diseased seedlings, weak seedlings, seedlings and variegated seedlings, cultivator depth 5 ~ 10cm, buried soil should not exceed the leaf marks The second cultivator is carried out in the branching stage, and the cultivating depth is 10-12cm.
Mid-term fertility management completed the third cultivator at the early flowering stage and was carried out simultaneously with topdressing and ditching. Each 667m2 topdressing urea was 4~5kg, and the cultivating depth was 10~12cm. Generally no irrigation before the initial flowering, if the high temperature at noon, the calyx bean leaves show sluggish, but sooner or later can be restored, you should consider early irrigation. During flowering to maturity, sufficient moisture should be ensured in the field, especially during the flowering period, which is the critical period for water requirement of the flower and cowpea. If there is water shortage, the hardiness rate will increase. In order to increase the efficiency of weeding, weeding should be promoted by chemical spraying, spraying 25% of 400 to 500 times of liquid, or using 7.5% of Weibudak Emulsion with 550 to 600 times of spray, or 35% of spraying of 400 to 550 times of liquid. Steady or 15% stable and stable, the remaining broad-leaved weeds should be removed in time for field management. After flowering, the top dressing is used to promote strong seedlings, and 80 to 150 times of urea can be sprayed with 150 to 200 times more potassium dihydrogen phosphate. Fertilizer can also be used to spray high-quality foliar fertilizer. Flowering is a crucial period for miscellaneous crops. Strict seedlings, variegated seedlings, and alien flower seedlings should be strictly excluded.
The late-fertility management flower cowpea needs a large amount of water during the grain phase, and the field water holding capacity cannot be lower than 70%, and sufficient water supply should be ensured. The amount of fertilizer needed to enter the grain stage is larger. Every 667m2 should be sprayed with 4~5kg urea, and the foliage should be top-dressed outside the roots. Urea 0.3kg, potassium dihydrogen phosphate 0.2kg, and water 32kg per worker (667m2) 16 type sprayer 2 pots) Foliar fertilization.
Diseases, Insects, and Weeds Control The control of spider mites is in the stage of spotting. It is controlled with special acaricides and is usually controlled 2 to 3 times. Bacterial diseases should be based on the strengthening of field management, from the seedling stage to actively prevent, can spray 5,000 to 10,000 times of the agricultural streptomycin or 77% can kill 500 times or 1:1:200 Bordeaux liquid. Sclerotinia proper control of water in the middle and later periods, reduce the humidity in the field can reduce the incidence; the initial stage of the disease can be sprayed with 600 sclerotia net 600 times or 12.5 speed Poly WP 3000 times have a good effect.
4. The harvest was manually pulled up and piled up into small piles, mechanically pulled on the field, fully sun dried or dried and then spread into 1m thick, rolled with a small four-wheel machine, etc. with a tow or roller, and then manually cleared, Yang Yang, Clean election, picking up impurities, picking out variegated beans, the quality should meet the standards of the National Soybean Variety, and then packing according to the relevant provisions of the seed. When the soil in the field is too hard to be arched, it can be filled with water and harvested. The weather is dry and the humidity in the field is small. You should try to pull it out as soon as possible. You should also pick it up sooner or later to reduce losses. On-field operations should guard against various confounding factors.
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