Comparative study on antidepressant effects of different frequency electroacupuncture on model rats

Comparative study on antidepressant effects of different frequency electroacupuncture on model rats
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Abstract: Objective To observe the antidepressant effects of 2Hz and 100Hz electroacupuncture in the forced swimming behavioral model of rats. Methods SD male rats were divided into model group and electroacupuncture group (2Hz group, 100Hz group). Baihui and Yintang points were taken to observe the swimming time after acupuncture, and the activity of rats was detected by open field experiment. . Results The swimming time of the 2 Hz electroacupuncture group decreased, which was significantly different from the model group (P<0.05), and the activity did not increase (P>0.05). The swimming time of the 100 Hz electroacupuncture group was compared with the model group. There was no significant difference (P>0.05). Conclusions suggest that 2Hz electroacupuncture may have antidepressant effects.
Keywords: electroacupuncture, frequency, compulsive swimming, depression
Depression is a common disease that seriously endangers the physical and mental health of human beings. Electroacupuncture has a certain effect on the treatment of depression [1]. In recent years, animal experiments on electroacupuncture treatment of depression have become more and more intensive [2~7]. Electroacupuncture frequency has an important effect on the efficacy, but the appropriate frequency of electroacupuncture treatment of depression is still unclear. In this experiment, a forced swimming depression model was used to investigate the antidepressant effects of low frequency 2 Hz and high frequency 100 Hz electroacupuncture, in order to provide a reference for clinical application.
1. Materials and methods
1.1 Animals and grouping
Male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing (120 ± 10) g, were provided by Vitallihua Laboratory Animal Technology Co., Ltd., clean grade. Every 4 cages are raised in groups, with unlimited water and natural lighting. They were randomly divided into a model group (not acupuncture), a 2 Hz electroacupuncture group, and a 100 Hz electroacupuncture group. The experiment was started after 1 week of domestication.
1.2 Selection of electroacupuncture frequency Select the Yintang and Baihui points corresponding to the anatomical parts of the human body, and use the electro-acupuncture instrument. The electroacupuncture frequency is 2Hz and 100Hz respectively, the wave shape is square wave, the wave width is 0.6ms at 2Hz, 0.1ms at 100Hz, and the current intensity is 1-2-3mA (ie, 1mA first, then 1mA per 10mis later, to 3 mA), with partial skin twitching and the animal not screaming. Once a day, each time 30 minutes, every 3 consecutive intervals after 1d, a total of 9 times.
1.3 forced swimming experiment method
Basically in accordance with Porsolt et al. [8]. Before the last electroacupuncture, the rats were pre-toured. The rats were placed in a cylindrical glass jar (40 cm high and 20 cm in diameter). The water depth in the cylinder was 20 cm. The water temperature was 25-28 ° C. After 15 min, the rats were removed and the towels were wiped and placed warm. Dry next to the device, then electric needle. After 24 hours of pre-visiting, the rats were forced to swim in the same conditions, and the cumulative immobility time within 5 minutes was measured (the rats stopped struggling in a floating erect state without movement, and only occasional limb movements kept the head floating on the water surface. ). The test was conducted in the morning and the groups were operated in parallel.
1.4 open field experiment method
According to the reference [3] method, after 2 hours of forced swimming test, the rats were individually placed in an open box (80 cm in length and width, 40 cm in height, 25 in the same area at the bottom, black in the inner wall), and recorded within 5 min. The number of crossings, the number of reamings and the number of feces. Each group was alternated to reduce the effect of biological rhythms on rat behavior. This experiment was used to detect rat activity.
1.5 Data Processing Experimental results are expressed as χ±s. One-way analysis of variance was followed by statistical analysis by Dunnet's two-sided test, with P < 0.05 as the statistical significance level.
2 results
2.1 Effects on forced swimming behavior in rats
The 2Hz group significantly shortened the forced swimming time in rats, which was significantly different from the model group (P<0.05). The 100Hz group had a tendency to shorten the immobility time, but there was no significant difference compared with the model group (P >0.05). There was a significant difference between the 2 Hz group and the 100 Hz group (P<0.05).
2.2 Effects on rat activity
Compared with the model group, the 2Hz group and the 100Hz group had a trend of increasing the number of walking grids, but there was no significant difference (P>0.05); the number of standings decreased, but there was no significant difference (P>0.05). There was no significant difference between the 2 Hz group and the 100 Hz group (P>0.05). There was no significant difference in activity between groups.
3 Discussion
In this study, the effective depression model of forced swimming in rats was used to compare the antidepressant effects of 2Hz and 100Hz electroacupuncture for the first time.
The forced swimming test of rats established by Porsolt et al. is a commonly used antidepressant evaluation model and is widely used in the screening of antidepressants [8]. The experiment puts the animal in a space that is limited and cannot escape. The animal struggles, cannot escape, and gives up the attempt to escape without moving, or has only a small movement to keep the head floating on the water. This state reflects the desperate behavior of animals. Many effective antidepressants such as tricyclics, monoamine oxidase inhibitors and some new antidepressants can shorten the immobility time to inhibit this behavior [9]. This is an acute stress model that mimics the desperate state of depression, but it is also thought to be a stress adaptation [10]. We observed that single or three consecutive electrical measurements had no significant effect on animal behavior (data not shown). After 9 times of electroacupuncture, the animals in the 2 Hz electroacupuncture group were more active than the control group after entering the water, showing struggling, jumping, and diving into the water to find a way out. The swimming time was significantly reduced, which was more obvious than the 100 Hz group. In addition, it was observed in the open field experiment that the activity of the 2 Hz group did not increase, indicating that the increase in swimming activity was not caused by exercise excitement, which initially suggested that the 2 Hz electroacupuncture had an antidepressant effect. In addition, it is suggested that the electroacupuncture produces an antidepressant effect requiring an additive process, which is different from the single administration of certain antidepressants.
Chronic stress models are more common in the current experimental study of electroacupuncture treatment of depression [2~4]. This model has the characteristics of mimicking the symptoms of depression and meeting the theory of depression. The forced swimming experiment is simple and easy, and is suitable for screening antidepressants [10]. Therefore, we chose the forced swimming model to study the antidepressant effects of 2Hz and 100Hz electroacupuncture. Another report, the use of forced swimming experiments in mice for electroacupuncture combined with antidepressants [6]. Because of the large variation in forced swimming experiments in mice, this study used forced swimming experiments in rats.
The Baihui and Yintang points selected in this experiment are commonly used in experimental research on acupuncture treatment of depression [2~5]. Baihui is the Dumai Cave, also known as Sanyang Wuhui. It is the place where the hands and feet are Sanyang, Dumai, and the foot and the yin meeting. Yintang is a special point for the outside of the temple, with the power of the town to clear the gods. Since the Baihui and Yintang points of the rats are close to each other, care should be taken to avoid short circuits in the electroacupuncture operation.
In summary, this study shows that in the forced swimming test of rats, the effect of 2Hz electroacupuncture to reduce swimming inactivity time is better than 100Hz; the mechanism remains to be further studied.

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