Apple vinegar processing method

Apple is one of the few agricultural products with obvious international competitiveness after China's accession to the WTO. Since 1992, China's apple production has been ranked first in the world. In 2000, the cultivation area of ​​apple in China reached 2.254 million hm2, and the output reached 20.43 million tons, which accounted for 40% of the total area of ​​the world and 30% of the total output. In recent years, the total output of apple in China has been maintained at about 22 million tons per year. It has become the economic pillar of the apple production area in northern China and plays an important role in advancing the adjustment of agricultural structure, increasing the income of farmers, and earning foreign exchange through exports. However, the difficulty in selling for many years has always been a realistic issue before us. At the same time, in supermarkets or fruit markets in some big cities, the price of imported apples is much higher than that of domestically produced apples, and they sell well.
From the contrast between the advantages of foreign apples and domestic apples, it is not difficult to find that the solution to the low price of apples in China lies in the deep processing of apples. According to the survey, the share of processed apples in China is less than 6% of the total output. Therefore, the apple processing industry has enormous potential for development, and Apple's processing investment is small and has quick effect. It is a good value-added project.
1. Apple's nutritional value Apple is flat and sweet. Each 100g fresh apple flesh contains sugar 15g, protein 0.2g, fat 0.1g, crude fiber 0.1g, potassium 110mg, calcium 0.11mg, phosphorus 11mg, iron 0.3mg, carotene 0.08mg, vitamin B1, 0.01mg, vitamins B2, 0.01mg, vitamin C5mg, niacin 0.1mg, also contains zinc and sorbitol, orange and other nutrients.
Apple fruit is plentiful and nutritious, and can be eaten fresh, processed and eaten, and has medicinal value. 1 The apple has a high sugar content and is mainly based on fructose, reducing sugar and sucrose, and is easily absorbed by the body. It is a good confectionery product; 2 Apple contains more potassium, which can promote the excretion of sodium salt in the human body, and on the edema And patients with hypertension have a good effect; 3 Apple contains a lot of acid and tannic acid, helps digestion and astringent effect, suitable for chronic diarrhea patients; 4 Apple contains more cellulose and organic acids, can be Promote gastrointestinal motility, treat constipation, and can inhibit the increase of cholesterol and lower blood glucose levels; 5 Apple has a higher zinc content and has a special effect on enhancing memory; 6 Apple is rich in vitamin B and vitamin C, can prevent Asian The formation of nitrate bases has the effect of preventing gastric cancer.
2. The process flow of apple clams is selected → graded → peeled → cut flap → seeded nest → soak → empty → candied → glace → baked → picked → packaged.
3. Method of operation (1) Selection of ingredients, grading to select fresh and full, maturity of nine mature acidity, browning resistance is not significant, such as cooked red jade, Guoguang and other varieties as well. Excluding pests and diseases and rot fruit, the fruit was graded according to the size of the transverse diameter of the fruit, of which 75mm or more was first grade, 65mm-74mm was second grade, and 64mm or less was third grade. The graded fruit should be processed separately.
(2) Peel, cut the petals, and wash the apples in the nest, rotate the peels with a peeler, and the thickness of the peeling shall not exceed 1.2mm. The secondary and tertiary fruits shall be cut in two, and the first cut shall be 3 petals, dig net nests and stems with a knife to repair the remaining peel.
(3) Soaking The slicing apple is immersed in a mass fraction of 0.1% calcium chloride (or a mass fraction of 1.5% lime) and a mass fraction of 0.3% sodium bisulfite solution for hardening and color protection. The treatment time is 10h-15h, and hard, fleshy apple can be treated without hardening. Treated fruit flaps should be thoroughly rinsed to remove residual compounds.
(4) Evacuation The vacuum is used to vacuum the fruit pieces. The mass fraction of the liquid (sugar) is 20%, the temperature is 40°C, and the ratio of sugar water to fruit pieces is 1.2:1. That is, the sugar water in the vacuum tank is submerged. Fruit blocks are degrees. Evacuation when the vacuum is 93.325kPa -95.992kPa, pumping time is 20min -30min, stop pumping back to normal pressure and soak for 15min.
(5) The sugar-produced apple tissue is more compact, and it is generally boiled using multiple sugar-in-time boiled methods. That is, 25 kg of sugar solution with a mass fraction of 35% to 40% is prepared in a stainless steel sandwich pot, and 50 kg of the sugar is processed after boiling. - Pour 60kg apple petals. After boiling, pour in 5kg of cold sugar with a mass fraction of 50%. Repeat this three times, each time for about 10 minutes. After the appearance of wrinkles on the surface of the fruit pieces, sugar can be added to cook. The sugar was added in 6 batches. Each time the sugar was added, it was boiled. The interval was about 5 minutes. The first two times each sugar 5kg, the middle two times each sugar 6kg, and add a small amount of cold sugar, so that the sugar liquid in the pot to temporarily stop boiling, due to a slight decrease in temperature, the steam pressure inside the fruit block decreases, is conducive to dehydration Speed ​​up the speed of sugar production. The fifth time, only sugar 6kg was added. 6th sugar 7kg, cooked for 20min, when the pulp was light yellow, together with sugar poured into the cylinder, immersed for 48h, when the fruit block transparent shiny, you can bake and dry.
(6) After baking the sugar stains, remove the fruit pieces, leach the sugar liquid on the surface of the fruit pieces, put them in the baking tray, and send them into the baking room for drying to evaporate the water and increase the sugar content. Drying room temperature should be controlled at 60 °C -70 °C, baked twice during the tray to make it dry evenly. When baking until the moisture content of the fruit piece is 17% -18%, and the total sugar content is 70% - 85%, the drying can be terminated. The whole baking time is about 28h-32h.
(7) Select, pack and remove the unqualified products such as coke paste and chips, grade according to the apple clam product quality requirements, and then pack according to different requirements.
4. The quality requirements of the apple clams are not sticky on the surface, the flesh has toughness, the fruit pieces are transparent, golden yellow, do not return sand, no sugar liquid, the water content is 17%-18%, the sugar content is 65%-70 %, sweet and sour taste of food.
5. Pay attention to the problem During the processing of apple clams, due to the different apple varieties or improper operation, the product specifications are often different, or do not meet the required standards. The more common problems are return sand, sugar, boil and shrink.
(1) Returning to the sand and flowing sugar back to the sand is a phenomenon in which the sugar crystallization occurs when the mass fraction of liquid glucoamylase in a glucoamylase product reaches a supersaturated state under a certain temperature condition. It is due to insugar insufficiency due to high sucrose content in the product. On the contrary, the invert sugar content of apple is too high, and it is easy to absorb moisture during the high temperature and humid season, which will cause the phenomenon of sugar flowing. The ratio of sucrose to invert sugar content in the finished product depends on the nature of the sugar liquid during the cooking of the fruit pieces. The factors influencing the invert sugar are the pH and temperature of the sugar solution. When the pH value is between 2.0 and 2.5, when heated Can promote the conversion of sucrose to form invert sugar.
(2) Boiled and shrivelled apple pods are soft and rotted. Besides, the maturity is also an important influencing factor. Both over- and over-ripe apples are easily boiled. Therefore, the use of apples of appropriate maturity as raw materials is a prerequisite for ensuring the quality of apples. The main cause of shrinkage is the lack of "sugar eating", which shrinks and dries up after drying. The method to overcome the collapse of apple pods is to add sugars in stages in the sugar process to gradually increase the mass fraction of the sugar liquid and prolong the immersion time. Ji County Agricultural Information Center

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